Cytonics Blog

  1. The Impact of Proteins on Joints

    Proteins Impact on JointsAs researchers have identified the existence of both pro- and anti-inflammatory proteins in the human body, they have come to understand that there are numerous types of proteins our bodies produce naturally, including those that fight against joint inflammation and those that directly trigger it.

    Certain proteins, such as those classified as cytokines, disintegrins  and proteases, can manifest in forms that are known to either directly stimulate nociceptive sensory neurons, but also irritate chondrocytes (cartilage cells) making them a major cause of not only inflammation, but the continuous presence of joint pain and cartilage erosion, as well.

    However, inflammatory proteins are intended to be mediated by the existence of anti-inflammatory proteins, which play a significant part in keeping the body heathy and alleviating joint pain resulting from inflammatory proteins. In particular, the protein known as alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is one of the largest naturally developed proteins your body generates, and its chief responsibility is to combat other harmful chemicals, proteins, and enzymes that can cause inflammation and tissue erosion when present in large quantities around the joints.

    One of the most common causes of joint pain is the development of unbalanced proteins within the joints that accumulate, create discomfort, and destroy cartilage.

    As a naturally occurring plasma glycoprotein, the A2M protein systematically eliminates these de-stabilizing molecules to restore the chemical harmonization of your body and protect both your tissue and cartilage from inflammatory protein-induced destruction.

    After it’s generated in the liver, the A2M protein flows throughout your blood stream, transported in plasma. It makes its way into the joint via a complex mechanism. When the A2M protein encounters other harmful, unbalanced types of proteins, it traps them and transports them out of the joint and then the body. When your body is functionally healthy, this process occurs naturally and regularly to assist in limiting instances of joint pain and deterring the destruction of cartilage.

    Though there may be several factors that cause joint pain, inflammation of the joints tends to be linked to low amounts of the A2M protein in the joint, which can occur for a few different reasons. Some individuals’ bodies just don’t do a good job pushing A2M into the joint to protect it. In others, the catabolic process overwhelms the ability of the surrounding tissue (synovium) to get enough A2M into the joint itself. This impedes the body’s ability reach, capture, and eliminate the proteins causing toxicity to the cartilage. In addition, as the human body grows older, the amount of A2M getting into the joint often is not enough to stem the tide of the metabolic process of aging or joint responses to trauma. In these cases, an impacted individual can benefit from a therapeutic injection of the A2M protein into the joints, which can reduce the inflammation and alleviate symptoms of discomfort.


  2. Putting the Fight Back in Fighters with A2M

    A2M FightersLiving with the chronic pain caused by cartilage deterioration is an unfortunate fact of life for many adults. In America alone, approximately 27 million individuals suffer from the discomforts caused by osteoarthritis. Certain segments of the population are more susceptible to developing this degenerative disease, including persons over 65, those with certain genetic mutations, overweight individuals, and smokers.

    However, this is not just a condition that affects people of compromised health and physical ability. In fact, considerable amounts of physical activity – such as that performed by professional athletes – can also contribute to wear and tear on cartilage and the complications it brings.

    This is certainly true for MMA fighters Cezar ‘Mutante’ Ferreira and Royce Gracie, both of whom have experienced complications in their fighting careers due to spinal pain and injury.

    Ferreira, a 33-year-old UFC fighter and TUF Brazil 1 champion, experienced an injury in 2015 that required the insertion of eight screws in his spine. Although he resumed fighting after his recovery, the residual effects of his injury and the damage the sport has done to his cartilage have continued to impact his career.

    Gracie, whose name is synonymous with his family’s generations of work developing the art of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, won the first-ever Ultimate Fighting Championship, just one title in his prolific MMA career. However, neither his family heritage nor his athletic talent could prevent Gracie from experiencing the ailments that result from a long career in such a physically taxing sport.

    Could A2M Be the Solution?

    A2M has the ability to prevent cartilage breakdown and restore tissue and function in joints affected by the degenerative effects of osteoarthritis. This makes it an excellent option for those who want to continue leading an active lifestyle while also maintaining the integrity of their joints.

    Ferreira and Gracie agree – both have made media statements about their success with the injections. In a Facebook post from December 2015, Gracie even posed with Cytonics founder, Dr. Gaetano Scuderi, to discuss his success with A2M therapy. As Gracie put it, “Dr. Scuderi…has been encouraging me for months to try A2M therapy. It sounded almost too good to be true. After getting an injection of A2M I now wish I would’ve listened to him months ago. I feel great and training hard for my next fight.”



  3. Joint Pain in Young Adults

    Joint Pain Young AdultsIn recent years, more young adults suffering from joint pain have sought replacement surgeries. Nowadays, implants are of stronger materials that give replacements the ability to remain functional for up to 30 years. Formerly, replacements only remained functional for around 10 years and were not for continuous use, which is why physicians didn’t usually perform replacement procedures on young people.

    However, joint problems are not just for the elderly. In fact, most people who require replacements have some type of arthritis in the joint, which is a condition that can occur at any age. In addition, many other factors can cause joint pain, including the accumulation of cytokine molecules inside the joints. Cytokines are chemicals your body generates to combat illnesses, but when these molecules exist in high levels within the joints, it causes inflammation, and cartilage erosion. Recent studies have displayed the effectiveness of the organic protein A2M in flushing cartilage-damaging chemicals like cytokines out of the body to reduce joint pain.

    Review the following information about the joint-soothing properties of the natural protein A2M to gain a better understanding of your potential treatment options.

    A2M Injections and Inflammation

    A2M is an organic protein your body generates to shield your tissue from harmful chemicals that prohibit cartilage breakdown like cytokines. Ongoing joint pain tends to relate to low levels of A2M, and research has indicated that A2M injections can assist in combating cartilage destruction and reducing inflammation. A2M eliminates the chemicals that are causing joint pain and brings the joint back to its intended molecular state.

    Since A2M is a comparatively big molecule, there may be numerous explanations why it is unable to reach joints naturally in certain cases. Injecting the natural protein into the joint is a viable treatment to aid in preventing cartilage damage and alleviating joint pain.

    The A2M Process

    The liver makes A2M and the blood stream circulates it until it approaches harmful molecules that are damaging cartilage and tissues. Unique areas in the A2M protein connect with these molecules to catch and eliminate them. When the protein has covered all its connecting areas, the body expels it completely, which effectively eliminates the chemicals causing joint pain.

    The Process of A2M Circulation

    The impact of an injury can disrupt the circulation of A2M’s cartilage-harming chemicals. Even a relatively moderate impairment can hinder the distribution of A2M and result in joint pain.

    A2M circulation is also prone to becoming less efficient as people age. In such circumstances, A2M injection treatments may renew the joints’ natural balance and alleviate discomfort.


  4. Non-Surgical Treatment for Musculoskeletal Pain

    Musculoskeletal PainMusculoskeletal pain is an everyday issue for many people. It can by caused by muscle tissue damage from daily wear and tear or injury. People suffering from musculoskeletal pain often have trouble sleeping and are regularly fatigued, in addition to constant paint in their muscles or joints. For those with severe osteoarthritis or a similar condition that is causing musculoskeletal pain, surgery may seem like the only option to relieve their discomfort. For those of advanced age, surgery may be risky as their bodies become more fragile. For younger sufferers of this condition, surgery is costly, not without some risk and additionally should often be the last option.

    Arthritic joints produce catabolic proteases, which are chemicals that break down cartilage. This process is what causes musculoskeletal pain. Surgery is an invasive and a last resort (ex. fusion or joint replacement) for pain management in these cases.

    A2M injections is the answer for people who want to manage their pain without surgery.

    What Is A2M?

    A2M is also known as alpha-2-macroglobulin. It is found naturally in high concentrations in blood. The large plasma protein (A2M) works by targeting proteins that attack joint cartilage, similar to white blood cells role in infection.

    What Does A2M Help?

    A2M injections can provide pain relief for a variety of diseases, such as:

    • Osteoarthritis
    • Tendonitis
    • Post-Traumatic Arthritis
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Gout
    • Ligament injuries

    A2M can be used with neck, hip, knee, back, shoulder, hand, foot, and ankle injuries.

    How Does A2M Help?

    The three classifications of proteins that break down cartilage include Cytokines, Matrix Metalloproteinases, and ADAMTS Degradation Proteases. By binding and capturing these catabolic proteases in joints, A2M can help to neutralize their effect. By using a “bait and trap” mechanism, A2M inactivates the bad chemicals and their degenerative qualities. Because A2M is found naturally in the body, highly concentrated injections can prevent degeneration, promote regeneration, manage pain, and stop the progression of various diseases.

    This is the first injection treatment for osteoarthritis and similar conditions that can inhibit and stop the progression of cartilage loss. It has been proven through multiple scientific studies that A2M injections are beneficial, most notably through this study from the American College of Rheumatology.

    Ask your health provider about your A2M options. For further information, consider the work of Cytonics Corporation. They are the first company to develop strategies using A2M technology. Their ambition is to lead the world in diagnostic products for musculoskeletal diseases and to develop effective treatment for joint pain, back pain, and osteoarthritis.


  5. Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) Breakthrough Arthritis Treatment

    Arthritis TreatmentArthritis is one of the world’s most common health problems. Aging and post-traumatic arthritis caused by injuries are commonly cited causes of the condition. Billions of patients suffer from debilitating arthritis pain in their backs, knees, and hands. Florida-based research company Cytonics has developed a method for injecting Alpha-2-macroglobulin, or A2M, to stop the progression of arthritis. The process works to inhibit disease progression and regenerate damaged cartilage in affected joints.

    What’s A2M?

    A2M, a natural inhibitor produced by the liver, protects cartilage from proteins known to cause osteoarthritis. Instead of being concentrated in joints to prevent arthritis, A2M molecules are disbursed throughout the body. As a solution to the problem, Cytonics developed a regenerative A2M concentrate for treatment. The medicine is injected directly into affected joints, delivering the A2M supplement to inhibit the progression of arthritis.

    How Does A2M Work to Stop Arthritis?

    When a patient is suffering from arthritis, chemicals that destroy cartilage affect his or her joints. Catabolic proteases, the chemicals cause cartilage to break down, result in pain and inflammation. The disease will eventually cause the cartilage to disappear completely, resulting in painful friction of bones rubbing together. In healthy joints, cartilage works as a buffer to prevent bone-on-bone contact.

    A2M halts the progression of osteoarthritis at the molecular level by inactivating the chemicals that cause joint breakdown. As the A2M captures and neutralizes the damaging chemicals, the body will work to eliminate them. The joint will then begin to recover, as the inflammation is subdued, and harmful chemicals are no longer present. A2M remaining in the joint will promote tissue growth and the joint can begin the restoration process. The repaired damage will then lead to a pain-free joint.

    Will A2M Work for Me?

    A2M will improve the pain and damage of arthritis in most patients. The joint restoration process will work best when used early in arthritis treatment, before destruction has progressed. This will allow for the maximum amount of cartilage to be protected before becoming severely damaged. In those with untreated arthritis, A2M injections can still be effective. The restoration process may not be as thorough but will still inhibit disease progression.

    The A2M injection can eliminate all pain associated with osteoarthritis. Our patients have found relief for spinal, knee, and soft tissue pain. The regenerative process will work to rebuild healthy joints, allowing patients to return to active lifestyles.


  6. Take Control of Chronic Back Pain with A2M Injections

    back pain treatmentBack pain is one of the most common conditions that lead Americans to seek help from their doctor. Often, it’s difficult to pinpoint the cause and even harder to treat. For those with chronic back pain, there’s new hope.

    A2M injections use a naturally-occurring molecule to reduce inflammation and help alleviate pain in injured areas.

    Back Pain Statistics

    The numbers are staggering. A Statista 2017 survey found 54 percent of Americans reported suffering from neck and back pain for five years or longer.  The American Physical Therapy Association says 37 percent of those with back pain don’t seek help. Those who suffer say back pain impacts their ability to participate in daily living, stay physically active, or get a healthy amount of sleep.

    Women are more likely to suffer from back pain than men, but both genders say their condition hinders their ability to do their job. People report taking medication, seeing a physical therapist, or trying doctor-recommended treatment for their pain with varying levels of success.

    Americans and insurance companies spend $50 billion dollars a year on back pain treatment. The estimated cost of lost wages, reduced productivity and legal overhead is over $100 billion a year.

    Problems with Treatment and Diagnosis

    The back, spine, and joints are all components of a complex system with many moving parts. Pain is subjective, and what patients are experiencing is often hard for them to describe. Even when doctors are relatively certain of the cause, no one treatment works for everyone, so treatment can feel like a process of trial and error. Sufferers become frustrated and feel like pain must be something they just have to live with.

    Fortunately though, Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) injection treatment is one way many sufferers have found relief from back pain.

    How A2M Works

    A2M is a molecule that the human body makes on its own, but it’s normally too large to fit in the tight spaces between joints and discs. Injections place A2M where pain originates. The molecule binds to destructive enzymes to prevent tissue breakdown and reduce inflammation. A2M sticks around for a long period of time, sopping up enzymes that lead to joint degradation and cartilage loss and through natural processes, used up A2M is flushed out of our system.

    A2M therapy jump-starts natural healing processes and encourages the growth of healthy tissue. It prevents cartilage breakdown within the affected joint.

    The molecule is gathered from the patient’s own blood and later injected in a super concentrated dose. After the injection, patients typically feel restored mobility the very same day. Relief often lasts for months when combined with follow-up therapy. Cytonics is the ONLY company dedicated to the research and development of A2M, and has optimized processes maximizing the ability of A2M to protect cartilage.

    To find a physician who can help with A2M injection treatment, click here.


  7. Invest And Be A Part Of the Solution with Cytonics

    Investor InformationIn the U.S., over 30 million people are treated for back pain yearly, and osteoarthritis (OA) related joint pain affects nearly 27 million. In all, musculoskeletal disease burdens our nation with substantial human suffering, lost productivity, missed work, and excessive medical expenses. Our mission at Cytonics is to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic products for OA, back, and joint pain.

    Become a Cytonics Investor

    We’re excited to share that Cytonics is gearing up to offer company shares to not only accredited investors, but also anybody interested in investing in a growing and proven medical technology company. We are currently working with auditors and regulators to setup a crowdfunding platform so that investors of all sizes can take advantage of this financial opportunity.

    How do Investors make money with Crowdfunding?

    There are different ways investors can make money through crowdfunding investments. Investors can own a share or dividend, which represents them owning a part of the business. Potentially, investors can also make money if a company is sold/acquired, goes public with an IPO, or through a secondary market trade if the shareowner decides to sell his or her dividend.  Like any investment, there are risks involved and there is no financial guarantee, so it’s important to invest in solid, proven companies.

    What should Cytonic investors know?

    Cytonics first discovered a unique “bio-marker” that assists physicians in diagnosing pain and improving outcomes by pinpointing the source of pain. This led to identification of a unique protein, Alpha-2 Macroglobulin (A2M), made by the body that stops pain AND also protects cartilage. We have developed a range of therapeutic products based on A2M.

    We intend to market our products to the more than 50,000 surgeons and physicians that treat patients for osteoarthritis and orthopedic related pain in the U.S. and around the world.

    What are Cytonics’ products?

    Research has shown that an inflammatory cascade of proteins causes back and joint pain. Our FACTÔ diagnostic assay measures the presence of a unique Fibronectin- Aggrecan Complex (FAC) in a fluid specimen taken from patients with spine or joint related pain. FACT is a Lab Developed Test (LDT) that is processed in Cytonics’ CLIA certified lab. Two versions have been launched in the US: FACT for Molecular Disc Analysis, and FACT for Joint Diagnostics.

    Based on Cytonics’ in-depth knowledge of the pain cascade and discovery of FAC, we have also developed a treatment that inhibits cartilage degeneration and prevents the formation of FAC. Our APICÔ System utilizes a unique process to concentrate plasma proteins from a patient’s own blood. We have recently completed a successful Phase l/ll clinical trial with APIC- CF. Moreover, our recombinant platform has been shown to slow the progression of osteoarthritis in preclinical models by Cytonics and by independent researchers at Brown University (Arthritis Research & Therapy 2017 19:175). Additional new products are underway in development as well.

    Does Cytonics’ have patents?

    Cytonics has invested over $1.5M in patent development, and has filed numerous domestic and international patent applications on our diagnostic and therapeutic products. We have already received 7 patent approvals.

    What capital has already been raised for Cytonics?

    The company has received over $18M in funding, including a prestigious $1.8M grant from the National Institute of Health. An international orthopedic implant company purchased a minority interest in Cytonics in 2011 and made an additional investment in 2013. Furthermore, we closed a Series B round at $4.00/ share, with $2M raised in 2015.

    Cytonics is currently pursuing opportunities for a C round of funding via a convertible debt offering or a regulation A+ tier 2 IPO to fund preclinical trials of its recombinant A2M.

    How to get started as a Cytonics investor

    To be added to our monthly newsletter and to receive future investment information about Cytonics, contact Additionally, follow us on Facebook and Twitter to learn more about our IPO, new products and research.


  8. What Is Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Injection Treatment?

    A2M Injection TreatmentAlpha-2-macroglobulin, or A2M, is a cartilage catabolic factor inhibitor with the power to stop the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). It’s found naturally in the blood. Treatments using A2M through Cytonics Corporation may be able to help patients with OA by preventing the breakdown and loss of cartilage. Cytonics uses its own original, breakthrough technology to administer these treatments directly to the joint space in need. Here’s what you need to know about this innovative treatment.

    How Does A2M Work to Stop Osteoarthritis?

    Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, and one of the most prevalent health problems today. It affects about 27 million Americans. OA is a degenerative disease in which the tissues that cover joints break down and eventually wear away completely. This results in the two bones rubbing painfully together, instead of gliding, as they do when joints are healthy. Thanks to Cytonics’ A2M injection treatment, OA doesn’t have to be forever. Recent scientific studies indicate that Cytonics’ A2M injection treatment may offer lasting protection from joint collapse.

    During our A2M injection treatments, we use the molecular technology we developed to concentrate the A2M in your blood, in order to deliver high amounts to the joint space. A2M is a special inhibitor because it protects the cartilage in your body from the destructive proteins (catabolic proteases) that break down cartilage and cause OA. Treatments using A2M, such as Cytonics’ unique therapy, mimic natural processes to prevent cartilage loss, promote tissue growth, and support the restoration of a healthy joint.

    A2M injections with Cytonics’ special molecular technology results in plenty of A2M available to bind and stop chemicals in joints that are responsible for causing OA. The A2M fills the joint space, captures the catabolic proteases, and neutralizes their harmful degenerative effects – effectively halting osteoarthritis and related pain in their tracks. A2M doesn’t stop there. It then works to promote the regrowth of lost or worn-away cartilage in the joint to repair damage and ultimately restore pain-free use of the joint.

    A2M Injection Treatment Clinical Trials

    Cytonics Corporation is the only company with patented technology for concentrating A2M. Our device uses the patient’s own blood to remove the cells and inject concentrated A2M to the affected joint.

    Our special Autologous Protease Inhibitor Concentrate System has received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to move onto the Investigational New Drug Clinical Trial stage for the treatment of osteoarthritis. The ongoing 2016 study indicates a strong safety profile and reduction of pain after eight weeks – a positive step for the future of alpha-2-macroglobulin injection treatments.


  9. How to Know If A Person Has Osteoarthritis

    OsteoarthritisIt’s common to experience some soreness or stiffness in joints or in the back, especially after waking up or after sitting for an extended period. If this is happening more frequently, you may be wondering if these are the early signs of osteoarthritis (OA). If so, you are not alone. The most common cause of joint disorder in the US is osteoarthritis, affecting 10 percent of men and 13 percent of women over 60. This number is poised to grow over the coming years.

    Here are some signs to look for that may indicate osteoarthritis.

    Pain and Tenderness

    Early arthritis pain manifests as an aching pain and tenderness. Moving a joint in a particular way may cause a sharper pain that can indicate this is more than normal soreness. Additionally, you may experience a tenderness revealed by pressing on the joint. If this pain and tenderness continues or returns regularly, this may well be an early sign of osteoarthritis.

    Stiffness of Joints

    Taken alone, it can be hard to discern if the stiffness you feel on waking up or after sitting for a while is a symptom of osteoarthritis or a normal part of life. As the joints warm up, the stiffness is likely to be relieved, further obscuring the fact that this may well be a symptom of a bigger problem. If this stiffness is accompanied by one or more of the other symptoms listed here, it may well be an indicator of osteoarthritis.

    Lost Range of Motion

    Joints have a natural range of motion that allows freedom of movement. As osteoarthritis progresses, you may observe this range of motion becoming increasingly limited. Pay attention if your knee no longer bends as far as it used to, or if you are unable to raise your arm all the way anymore. This usually comes on gradually, but becomes more apparent as the osteoarthritis progresses.

    Symptoms With No Apparent Cause

    Waking up with a sore, stiff back may seem normal. If you find yourself sore and stiff during the day without being able to identify an activity that may have brought the soreness about, this may well be a sign that osteoarthritis is the cause.

    If you observe these symptoms, it is best to consult your doctor about them sooner rather than later. Getting an early diagnosis can help you be proactive in taking measures to combat the progression of the disorder and prolong your quality of life.

    Treatment for OA

    An emerging treatment option for osteoarthritis includes Alpha-2-Macroglobulin (A2M) injections. A2M is a natural protein the body produces that prevents cartilage from breaking down, thus stopping the progression of OA and providing joint pain relief.

    To find a physician in your area who offers A2M treatment, click here or contact Cytonics at

  10. Understanding A2M and the Role It Plays Against Bad Chemicals

    Joint Pain TreatmentChemical Causes of Joint Pain

    Understanding the roles of A2M, including inflammatory cytokines, can be useful in understanding your treatment options and how you can expect them to relieve your pain. What can at first appear to be an alphabet soup of unfamiliar terms will be clear as you understand the roles these chemicals play in your joint pain.

    Our bodies are a wonder of chemical production and regulation. Over time, however, certain chemicals can get out of balance and produce painful effects. Your body produces cytokines that help the immune system in fighting diseases. However, when certain types of these cytokines are present in sufficient quantities in your joints, inflammation, pain, and destruction of cartilage can result. Many other factors, of course, can produce joint pain as well, but inflammation as a result of these bad chemicals is commonly a factor in producing joint pain.

    A2M and Treating Inflammation

    A2M is a natural protein produced by your body and present in blood plasma. A2M’s role is to protect tissue (like cartilage) from some of these “bad chemicals” (inhibiting cartilage breakdown for example). Joint pain is often associated with low levels of A2M. A study from Brown university showed that concentrated injections of A2M into the joint can effectively fight cartilage damage and inflammation. A2M destroys the chemicals causing inflammation and joint pain and returns the joint to proper balance. A2M is a relatively large molecule, and there can be several reasons, such as an injury, that may keep A2M from reaching joints effectively. By injecting this powerful protein directly into the joint, A2M can provide joint pain relief and protect cartilage by destroying the chemicals that harm the joint.

    How A2M Does Its Job

    Produced in the liver, the A2M protein circulates through a healthy blood stream carried in your plasma. When A2M comes across cartilage destroying enzymes, special sites on the protein bind with the enzymes to trap and then carry them away. Once the A2M protein has filled each of its binding sites, the protein is flushed from the body, thus removing the harmful chemicals that destroy your cartilage. When the system is healthy, this takes place naturally without any special intervention. After an injury, however, the system may not function properly, which results in joint pain. Even a minor injury can impede the flow of A2M, causing discomfort and limitation that can be misleading. Additionally, as we age, the process of A2M circulation tends to become less effective. In these cases, a concentrated injection of A2M may restore the joint to proper working order and relieve the inflammation and pain.

    At Cytonics we’re dedicated to discovering and developing therapeutics based on the protease inhibitor A2M. Contact us to learn more about our research and treatments.